Фазовая автоподстройка частоты

Cw 3.15

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\U9MATH

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\^\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \#- \@ -\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \^\,

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\^\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ 1. \#J, obt cdtltybz j, FGX.\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \^\,

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\#Cbcntvs FGX utnthjlbyf ghbtvybrf \ ghbvtyz. n \ xfot

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Dctuj lkz evtymitybz jnrkjytybq \ ghjvt;enjxyjq \ xfcnjns

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Jn \ yjvbyfkmyjuj \ pyfxtybz, \ \#dspdfyys[ \ \ ytcnf, bkmyjcnm.

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Xfcnjn \ gthtlfnxbrf \ b \ \ utnthjlbyf. \ \ \#Ghbvtytybt \ \ FGX

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Wtktcjj, hfpyj ghb \ ,jkmib[ \ ytcnf, bkmyjcnz[ \ xfcnjn. \ \#D

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‘njv ckexft \ gjkjcf \ ghjgecrfybz \ ghbtvybrf \ pyfxbntkmyj

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Ibht jgnbvfkmyjq. \ \#FGX \ ghbvtyz. n \ nfr;t \ d \ abkmnhf[,

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\#cktlzob[ pf cbuyfkfvb c \ vtlktyyj \ bpvtyz. otqcz \ afpjq

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Bkb xfcnjnjq, \#d ltvjlekznjhf[ cbuyfkjd c XV b AV, \,

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\#b n.\#l.\,

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\#Ghbywbg ltqcndbz \ FGX \ cjcnjbn \ d \ fdnjvfnbxtcrjv

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Bpvthtybb jnrkjytybz ghjvt;enjxyjq xfcnjns ghbtvybrf jn

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Yjvbyfkmyjuj \ pyfxtybz \ \ bkb \ \ xfcnjns \ \ gjlcnhfbdftvjuj

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Utnthjlbyf jn ytrjnjhjuj j, hfpwjdjuj pyfxtybz \ b \ gjl-\A

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Cnhjqrt utnthjlbyf nfrbv j, hfpjv, \#xnj, s jnrkjytybt \ yt

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Ghtdsifkj ytrjnjhjuj pyfxtybz.\,

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\#Gj \ ghbywbge \ ltqcndbz \ \ bpvthbntkmyjuj \ \ ‘ktvtynf

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Hfpkbxf. n ldf dblf FGX: \#cbcntvs afpjdjq fdnjgjlcnhjqrb

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Xfcnjns (AFGX) b xfcnjnyjq (XFGX). \#D cbcntvf[ XFGX d

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Rfxtcndt bpvthbntkmyjuj ‘ktvtynf bcgjkmpetncz \ xfcnjnysq

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Lbcrhbvbyfnjh, \#f d AFGX – afpjdsq. \#Cbcntvs \ AFGX, \ \#d

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Jnkbxbt jn XFGX, \#ghb gjcnjzyyjv \ dytiytv \ djpltqcndbb,

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\#yt dyjczn jib, re htuekbhjdfybz gj xfcnjnt. \#Jlyfrj ghb

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‘njv \ djpybrftn \ cnfnbxtcrfz \ jib, rf \ htuekbhjdfybz \ gj

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Afpt.\,

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\#D pfdbcbvjcnb jn [fhfrnthf hf, jns \ bpvthbntkmyjuj

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‘ktvtynf cbcntvs FGX ltkzn yf cbcntvs ytghthsdyjuj \ b

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Bvgekmcyjuj \ \ ltqcndbz, \ \ \#jceotcndkz. obt \ \ cjjndtncndtyyj

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Ytghthsdyjt b lbcrhtnyjt ckt;tybt pf xfcnjnjq.\,

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\#D rfxtcndt ‘ktrnhjyys[ eghfdkz. ob[ ‘ktvtynjd \ d

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Cbcntvf[ \ \ FGX \ \ bcgjkmpe. n \ \ \ nhfypbcnjhs, \ \ \ \#dfhbrfgs,

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\#ytkbytqyst rjyltycfnjhs \ b \ bylernbdyjcnb. \ \#Rhjvt \ njuj

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Byjulf \ \ bcgjkmpe. ncz \ \ ‘ktrnhjvt[fybxtcrbt \ \ eghfdkz. obt

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‘ktvtyns, \#rjnjhst \ bpvtyz. n \ xfcnjne \ utnthjlbyf \ gentv

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Bpvtytybz gfhfvtnhjd tuj rjynehf \ c \ gjvjom. \ ‘ktrnhj-\A

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Vt[fybxtcrjuj ghbdjlf.\,

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\#Hfccvjnhbv \ \ ,jktt \ \ gjlhj, yj \ \ cbcntvs \ \ \ afpjdjq

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Fdnjgjlcnhjqrb xfcnjns \,

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\^\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ . \#cbcntvs afpjdjq fdnjgjlcnhjqrb\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \^

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\^\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ xfcnjns.\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \^\,

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.1. \#Cnhernehyfz c[tvf b ghbywbg ltqcndbz AFGX.\,

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\#Cbcntvs AFGX vjuen dsgjkyznm \ hfpkbxyst \ aeyrwbb.

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\#Tckb gfhfvtnhs \ j, hfpwjdjuj \ cbuyfkf \ ytgjcnjzyys, \ \#bkb

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Rjulf yf d[jl \ cbcntvs \ dvtcnt \ c \ gjktpysv \ cbuyfkjv

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Gjgflftn \ fllbnbdyfz \ gjvt[f, \ \#cbcntvf \ AFGX \ dsgjkyztn

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Hjkm eprjgjkjcyjuj abkmnhf. \#Cbcntve AFGX \ vj;yj \ nfr;t

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Bcgjkmpjdfnm \ lkz \ gjcnhjtybz \ ytkbytqyjuj \ abkmnhf \ \ b

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Ltvjlekznjhf cbuyfkjd c XV b AV. \#Jcyjdyjt \ yfpyfxtybt

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AFGX \ d \ hflbjghbtvys[ \ \ ecnhjqcndf[ \ \ – \ \ cnf, bkbpfwbz

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Xfcnjns vtcnyjuj utnthjlbyf \ lkz \ jceotcndktybz \ njxyjq

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Yfcnhjqrb ghbtvybrf.\,

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\#Cbcntvs \ \ AFGX \ \ vj;yj \ \ hfpltkbnm \ \ yf \ \ cbcntvs

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F, cjk. nyjq \ \ b \ \ ghjvt;enjxyjq \ \ xfcnjn. \ \ \#D \ \ \ cbcntvt

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F, cjk. nyjq \ xfcnjns \ (hbc.\#1,\#f) \ xfcnjnf \ utnthjlbyf \ \ d

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Cnfnbxtcrjv ht;bvt \ njxyj \ hfdyf \ xfcnjnt \ cbuyfkf. \ \#D

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Cbcntvt \ \ ghjvt;enjxyjq \ \ xfcnjns \ \ (hbc.\#1,\#,) \ \ \ xfcnjnf

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Utnthjlbyf jnkbxftncz jn xfcnjns cbuyfkf \ yf \ dtkbxbye

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Ghjvt;enjxyjq xfcnjns. \#Ghb ‘njv jgjhyfz xfcnjnf \ hfdyf

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Yjvbyfkmyjve pyfxtyb. ghjvt;enjxyjq xfcnjns.\,

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\- p p

\- $f) ,) \*pU\!g \*pU\!g0

\- U\!al \*p p

\- u—-o u—-o u—-o u—-o u—-o pu—-o u—-o

\- U\!c\*p p p p p p U\!c\*p p p p pp p p p

\- [-o $AL \*u–o $EC \*u–o $A \*p [-o $CV \*u–o$EGX \*u–o $AL \*u–o $EC \*p

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\- m-i–. [—-. m–i-. m-i–. m—-. [—-. m–i-.

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\- m—-. m—-. m—-. m—-. m—-.

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\^\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \#hbc&;1&; Cnhernehyst c[tvs AFGX&;\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \^\,

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Hfccvjnhbv \ ghbywbg \ ltqcndbz \ cbcntvs \ \ FGX^ \ \ d

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Rjnjhjq d rfxtcndt abkmnhf \ bcgjkmpetncz \ RC \ \#- \ abkmnh

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Yb;yb[ xfcnjn&; \ Bpvthbntkmysv \ ‘ktvtynjv \ cbcntvs \ AFGX

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Zdkztncz afpjdsq ltntrnjh (cv&; hbc&; \ 1)&; \ Htuekbhe. ott

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Yfghz;tybt U\!h \#dshf, fnsdftncz gentv chfdytybz \ afp \ rj-\A

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Kt, fybq \ gjlcnhfbdftvjuj \ \ b \ \ ‘nfkjyyjuj \ \ utythfnjhjd&;

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Gjcrjkmre \ hfpyjcnm \ afp \ \)Dv\#(t\#) \ cdzpfyf \ c \ \ hfpyjcnm.

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Xfcnjn \)Dw\#(t\#) pfdbcbvjcnm.\,

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\+ {prjdata}i

\^\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \)Dv\#(t\#) = \ \)Dw\#(t\#)dt\ \#^\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \^(\#)\,

\- {prjdata}j

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\#drk. xtybt d cbcntve \ FGX \ afpjdjuj \ ltntrnjhf \ ‘rdbdf-\A

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Ktynyj drk. xtyb. byntuhbhe. otuj pdtyf&; “nj j, tcgtxbdftn

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Fcnfnbpv \ cbcntvs \ gj \ xfcnjnt^ \ n&;t&; \ hfdtycndj \ yek.

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Ecnfyjdbditqcz \ \ \ jib, rb \ \ \ ghb \ \ \ gjcnjzyyjv \ \ \ dytiytv

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Djpltqcndbb^ yt ghtdsif. otv ytrjnjhjuj pyfxtybz&;\,

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Eghfdktybt \ \ \ afpjq \ \ \ gjlcnhfbdftvjuj \ \ \ rjkt, fybz

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Jceotcndkztncz c gjvjom. eghfdkz. otuj ecnhjqcndf \ (EE)-

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Xfcnjnyjuj \ \ vjlekznjhf^ \ \ rjnjhsq \ \ bpvtyztn \ \ \ xfcnjne

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Utythfwbb&; Yf d[jl EE gjlftncz eghfdkz. ott \ yfghz;tybt

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U\!h \#^ \ rjnjhjt \ cdzpfyj \ c \ yfghz;tybtv \ U\!al \ \#lbaathty-\A

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Wbfkmysv ehfdytybtv\,

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\+ dU\!h

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\^\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ RC \*[—] + U\!h = U\!al.\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \^\#(\#)\,

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\#Ghb ‘njv vs cxbnftv^ \ xnj \ ltntrnjhyfz \ [fhfrnt-\A

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Hbcnbrf AL zdkztncz aeyrwbtq dblf\,

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\^\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ U\!al \#= S\!al\#*j\#(v\#)^\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \^(\#)\,

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Ult j\#(v\#) – d j, otv ckexft ytkbytqyfz aeyrwbz \ hfpyjcnb

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Afp d[jlyjuj cbuyfkf b cbuyfkf utnthjlbyf&;\,

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Cxbnfz^ xnj \ htuekbhjdjxyfz \ [fhfrnthbcnbrf \ utnt-\A

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Hjlbyf jgbcsdftncz ehfdytybtv\,

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\^\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ f\!u = f\!uy – S\!uU\!h + \)Df\!u\#^\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \^(\#)\,

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Ult \ \)Df\!u \ \#- \ yfxfkmyfz \ hfccnhjqrf \ utnthjlbyf^ \ \ yfqltv

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Htuekbhe. ott yfghz;tybt U\!h:\,

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\+ 1

\^\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ U\!h = – \*[—-](w\!u – w\!uy – \)Dw\!u)\#^\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \^(\#)\,

\- pS\!u

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\+ dv\!u dU\!h d v\!u

\^\ \ \ \ \#ult w\!u \#= \*[—]\#&; Njulf\ \ \*[—] \#= – \*[—-][–\!2\*-]\#&;\ \ \ \^(\#)\,

\- dt dt 2pS\!u dt

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\#Bp gjkextyyjuj \ cjjnyjitybz \ dblyj^ \ xnj \ afpjdsq

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Ltntrnjh dshf, fnsdftn yfghz;tybt^ pfdbczott jn hfpyjcnb

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Afp v\!u \#= v \#+ v\!c \#+ v\!g0 \#(\#)^ \ ult \ v\!g0 \ \#- \ \ afpf \ \ cbuyfkf

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Jgjhyjuj utythfnjhf GX (cv&; hbc&; 1^,)&;\,

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Lbaathtywbhez (\#)^ gjkexbv:\,

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\+ \!2 2

\+ dv\!u dv d v\!u d v

\^\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \*[—] \#= \*[–] \#+ w\!c \#+ w\!g0\ ;\ \*[–\!2\*-] \#= \*[–\!2\*-\#&;\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \^(8)\,

\- dt dt dt dt

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\#Bnfr^ cjgjcnfdkzz \ dshf;tybz \ (8) \ b \ (5)^ \ (6)^

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Gjkexbv \ lbaathtywbfkmyjt \ ehfdytybt \ dnjhjuj \ \ gjhzlrf^

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Jgbcsdf. ott hfpyjcnm afp v \#d cbcntvt AFGX:\,

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\+ \!2

\+ d v dv

\^\ \ \ \ \ \ \ RC\*[–\!2\*- + \*[— + 2pS\!al S\!u j(v) = \)Dw\!u – \)Dw\!c\ \ \ \ \ \ \^\#(9)\,

\- dt dt

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\#Htibnm \ gjkextyyjt \ ehfdytybt \ \ ljdjkmyj \ \ ckj;yj^

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Gj’njve \ \ ghb \ \ vfks[ \ \ bpvtytybz[ \ \ \ xfcnjns^ \ \ \ rjulf

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Cnfnbxtcrbt \ [fhfrnthbcnbrb \ EE \ b \ AL \ vj;yj \ cxbnfnm

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Kbytqysvb^ \ [fhfrnthbcnbre \ \ htuekbhjdfybz \ \ (9) \ \ vj;yj

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Ghtlcnfdbnm d dblt:\,

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\^\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \*[–] \#= \)Dw\!yfx \#- 2pK\!afgx j\#(v\#)^\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \^(\#0)\,

\- dt

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\#ult K\!afgx = S\!al S\!u ; w\!yfx = \)Dw\!u – \)Dw\!c\#&;\,

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Dshf;tybt \ (\#0) \ yt \ exbnsdftn \ yfkbxbt \ abkmnhf^

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N&;t&; cxbnftncz^ xnj RC \#= 0&; \ Afpjdsq \ gjhnhtn \ cbcntvs

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AFGX – uhfabr pfdbcbvjcnb dv\#/dt \#jn v \#ghb \ hfpkbxys[

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Yfxfkmys[ hfccnhjqrf[ \)Dw\!yfx \#- gjrfpfy yf hbc&; 2&;\,

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\+ dv\*p

\+ [–o

\+ dt\*p

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\+ p

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\+ p \)Dw\!yfx>\#0

\+ \*p

\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ p\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \)Dw\!yfx\#=0\,

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\^\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \#Hbc&; 2&; Afpjdsq gjhnhtn cbcntvs AFGX\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \^\,

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.2. \#Gjkjcf elth;fybz b gjkjcf dnzubdfybz cbcnt-\A

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vs AFGX&;\,

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Bp hbc&; 2&; dblyj^ xnj d \ cnfwbjyfhyjv \ cjcnjzybb

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( rjulf dv\#/dt \#= 0 ) hfdyjdtcbt djpvj;yj njkmrj \ d \ njv

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Ckexft^ rjulf rhbdfz \ dv\#/dt \ \#gthtctrftn \ jcm \ f, cwbcc&;

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Vfrcbvfkmyjt pyfxtybt yfxfkmyjq hfccnhjqrb^ ghb rjnjhjq

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Cbcntvf \ \ AFGX \ \ cgjcj, yf \ \ dsgjkyznm \ \ cdjb \ \ aeyrwbb^

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Jghtltkztncz gjkjcjq \ elth;fybz \ \)Dw\!el\#&; \ Ghb \ ljcnfnjxyj

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Cbkmyjv cbuyfkt yf \ d[jlt \ cbcntvs^ \ gjkjcf \ elth;fybz

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Jghtltkztncz \ \ \ vfrcbvfkmysv \ \ \ pyfxtybtv \ \ \ htuekbhe. otuj

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Yfghz;tybz^ \ f \ cktljdfntkmyj^ \ vfrcbvfkmysv \ \ pyfxtybtv

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U\!al\#^ rjnjhjt cjjndtncndetn pyfxtybzv eukf \,

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\^\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ v \ \#= \ \#/2p \ – \#2pn \#^ ult n \#= 0^ \#^ &;&;&; &;\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \^\,

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D ‘njv ckexft gjkjcf elth;fybz hfdyf\,

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\^\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \)Dw\!yfx = \#2pK\!afgx\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \^\#(1\#)\,

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Ghjwtcc dnzubdfybz d ht;bv elth;fybz jghtltkztncz

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Gjkjcjq \ dnzubdfybz^ \ rjnjhfz \ ghb \ jncencndbb \ abkmnhf

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Hfdyf gjkjct elth;fybz&; Ghb yfkbxbb abkmnhf \ \)Dw\!D<\)Dw\!el\#&;

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Gjkjce \ \ dnzubdfybz \ \ j, sxyj \ \ ds, bhf. n \ \ nfr^ \ \ \ xnj, s

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Dsgjkyzkjcm eckjdbt \,

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\^\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \)Dw\!d>\#2\)Dw\!yfx\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \^\#(\#2)

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Lkz \ \ \ edtkbxtybz \ \ \ gjkjcs \ \ \ \ dnzubdfybz \ \ \ \ ghbvtyz. n

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Rjhhtrnbhe. obt abkmnhs&;\,

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Rfr, skj \ crfpfyj \ hfytt^ \ cbcntvf \ AFGX \ dyjcbn

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Jib, re htuekbhjdfybz gj afpt\,

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\^\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \)Dv\!ecn \#= v\!ecn \#- \#/2p\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \^\#(\#3)\,

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Ghb \ \ ljcnb;tybb \ \ yfxfkmyjq \ \ hfccnhjqrb \ \ uhfybw

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J, kfcnb \ dnzubdfybz^ \ gjkexftncz \ vfrcbvfkmyjt \ pyfxtybt

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Jib, rb \)Dv\!ecn vf[ \#= + p\#/2\,

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.3. \#Ecnjqxbdjcnm cbcntvs AFGX&;\,

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Ecnjqxbdjcnm \ AFGX \ ljcnbuftncz \ \ ghb \ \ dsgjkytybb

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Ythfdtycndf K\!afgx < \#0&; \ Lkz \ dsgjkytybz \ ‘njuj \ eckjdbz

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Pyfrb \ rhenbpys \ cnfnbxtcrb[ \ [fhfrnthbcnbr \ AL \ b \ EE

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Ljk;ys, snm ghjnbdjgjkj;ysvb&; \ {fhfrnthyjq \ jcj, tyyjcnm.

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Cbcntvs \ AFGX \ zdkztncz \ nj^ \ xnj \ erfpfyyjt \ \ eckjdbt

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Dsgjkybvj ytpfdbcbvj \ jn \ bc[jlyjuj \ cjcnjzybbz \ pyfrjd

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Rhenbpys&; \ “nj \ j, eckjdktyj \ gthbjlbxyjcnm. \ cnfnbxtcrjq

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[fhfrnthbcnbrb AL \ b \ tt \ cbvvtnhbxyjcnm. \ jnyjcbntkmyj

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Jcb jhlbyfn&;\,

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Jlyfrj tckb \ d \ cbcntvt \ cjlth;fncz \ eprjgjkjcyst

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Abkmnhs^ \ dyjczobt \ pyfxbntkmyjt \ pfgfplsdfybt \ cbuyfkf^

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Cbcntvf \ \ AFGX \ \ \ vj;tn \ \ \ ,snm \ \ \ ytecnjqxbdjq&; \ \ \ Ghb

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Bcgjkmpjdfybb jlyjpdtyyjuj RC \#- \ abkmnhf^ \ cbcntvf \ AFGX

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Dctulf ecnjqxbdf^ yj ghjwtcc ecnfyjdktybz vj;tn yjcbnm

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Rjkt, fntkmysq [fhfrnth ghb, jkmijv pyfxtybb \ gjcnjzyyjq

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Dhtvtyb abkmnhf&;\,

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\^\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ . \#Rjv, bybhjdfyyfz cbcntvf AFGX – XFGX&;\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \^\,

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Hfytt, skj gjrfpfyj^ xnj cbcntvs \ AFGX \ j, kflf. n

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Eprjq \ gjkjcjq \ dnzubdfybz^ \ pfdbczoe. \ jn \ \ gjcnjzyyjq

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Dhtvtyb abkmnhf&; D nj ;t \ dhtvz \ XFGX \ kbityf \ ‘njuj

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Ytljcnfnrf^ yj \ jyf \ dyjcbn \ jcnfnjxye. \ jib, re \ htue-\A

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Kbhjdfybz gj xfcnjnt&;\,

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Tckb nht, etncz, scnhjltqcndbt \ cbcntvs^ \ f \ nfr;t

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Ghb pyfxbntkmys[ rjkt, fybz[ \ xfcnjns \ d[jlyjuj \ cbuyfkf

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Lkz evtymitybz afpjdjq jib, rb ghbvtyz. n rjv, bybhjdfyyst

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C[tvs \ AFGX \ – \ XFGX&; \ Ckt;tybt \ pf \ xfcnjnjq \ d[jlyjuj

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Cbuyfkf \ jceotcndkztncz \ cbcntvjq \ AFGX&; \ Tt \ gfhfvtnhs

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Db, bhf. ncz nfrbv j, hfpjv^ xnj, s \ vfrcbvfkmyj \ evtymibnm

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Jib, rb ckt;tybz&; Eprfz \ ievjdfz \ gjkjcf \ cbcntvs \ AFGX

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Gjpdjkztn gjkexbnm, jkmijt \ jnyjitybt \ cbuyfk/iev&; \ Lkz

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J, ktuxtybz gjbcrf \ cbuyfkf^ \ f \ nfr;t \ lkz \ edtkbxtybz

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Yflt;yjcnb ckt;tybz bcgjkmpetncz, jktt \ uhe, fz \ cbcntvf

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XFGX^ rjnjhfz \ bvttn \ ibhjre. \ gjkjce \ dnzubdfybz^ \ yj

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Jnckt;bdftn cbuyfk c ytrjnjhjq jib, rjq gj xfcnjnt&;\,

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Tckb \ vfrcbvfkmyfz \ jib, rf \ cbcntvs \ XFGX \ vtymit

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Gjkjcs elth;fybz AFGX^ nj gjckt njuj^ rfr jyf ddtltn

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Cbcntve d ht;bv cby[hjybpfwbb^ xfcnjnye. fdnjgjlcnhjqre

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Vj;yj \ jnrk. xbnm&; \ Ghb \ ds[jlt \ xfcnjns \ \ bp \ \ j, kfcnb

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Elth;fybz cyjdf drk. xftncz XFGX&;\,

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Ghbvth aeyrwbjyfkmyjq c[tvs AFGX \ – \ XFGX \ gjrfpfy

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Yf hbc&; \#&;\,

\-\/

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D ‘njq \ c[tvt \ cbcntvs \ AFGX \ b \ XFGX \ drk. xtys

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Gfhfkktkmyj&; Eghfdkz. ott yfghz;tybt gjcnegftn c \ ds[jlf

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Cevvfnjhf^ yf rjnjhsq xthtp abkmnhs gjlfys \ yfghz;tybz

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C afpjdjuj b xfcnjnyjuj ltntrnjhjd&;\,

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\+\*[———————————————————-]

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\+ p

\+ pU\!gj

\+ \*<

\+ u—–o u—–o

\+ p p U\!al \*p p

\+ u-L-o \#A L \*u–L—o \#A\!1 \*p

\+ p

\+ p m—–. m–i–.

\+ p p

\+ p <

\+ p p

\+ u—–o u—–o p u—–o

\+ U\!c \*p p p p p p {prjdata}s \*p

\+ [—Lo \#C V \*u–L–o \#EGX \*u–o p u—-o

\+ p {prjdata}t \*p

\+ m–i–. m—–. p m–i–. p

\+ p p p p

\+ p p I p

\+ p p p p

\+ p p u—–o u—–o p

\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ p\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ p\ \ \ p\ \ \ \ \ p\ \ U\!xl\ \*p\ \ \ \ \ p\ \ \ \ p\,

\- IU\!u \*[-L-o \#X L \*u–L—o \#A\!2 \*p p

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\- p p p p U\!h \*p p p

\- p \#U \*u–J–o \#E E \*u–J—o \#E C \*u——–J——–]

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\- m—–. m—–. m—–.

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\-[———————————————————-]

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\^\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \#Hbc&; \#&; Aeyrwbjyfkmyfz c[tvf AFGX – XFGX&;\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \^\,

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\^\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \”K B N T H F N E H F\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \^\,

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[1]\”&; \#Cghfdjxybr gj ext, yjve ghjtrnbhjdfyb. \,

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ghbtvyj – ecbkbntkmys[ ecnhjqcnd&; 2t bpl&;\,

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gjl htl&; V&; R&; <tkrbyf “\#Dbof irjkf” \#1988\,

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[2]\”&; \#Fdnjvfnbxtcrfz htuekbhjdrf ecbktybz b\,

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fdnjvfnbxtcrfz gjlcnhjqrf xfcnjns utnthj-\,

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lbyf&; Ext, yjt gjcj, bt gj rehce “\#ecbkb-\,

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ntkmyst b ghbtvyst ecnhjqcndf”\#&; VFB^ 1977\,

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\^\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \”C J L T H : F Y B T\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \^\,

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\”&; $J, obt cdtltybz j, FGX&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;\,

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2$&; Cbcntvf afpjdjq fdnjgjlcnhjqrb xfcnjns&;&;\,

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2$&;$&; Cnhernehyfz c[tvf b ghbywbg \,

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ltqcndbz AFGX&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;\,

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2$&;$&; Gjkjcf elth;fybz b gjkjcf dnz-\,

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ubdfybz cbcntvs AFGX&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;\,

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2$&;$&; Ecnjqxbdjcnm cbcntvs AFGX&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;\,

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3$&; Rjv, bybhjdfyyfz cbcntvf AFGX – XFGX&;&;&;&;&;&;\,

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$Kbnthfnehf&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;&;1\,

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\=

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Фазовая автоподстройка частоты